Atomic Absorption is a scientific testing method used for detecting metals in solution. The sample is fragmented into very little drops atomized. It is then fed into a fire. Isolated metal atoms interact with radiation that is been pre-set to specific wavelengths. This interaction is quantified and interpreted. Atomic absorption exerts distinct radiation wavelengths absorbed by different atoms. The instrument is the most reliable when a simple line relates absorption-concentration. Atomizer/flame and monochromator tools are key to creating the AA device function. Relevant factors of AA include flame calibration and unique metal-based interactions.
Quantum Mechanics states that radiation is absorbed and emitted by atoms in place units’ quanta. Each component absorbs different wavelengths. Let us say two components A and B are of interest. Element A absorbs at 450 nm, B at 470 nm. Radiation from 400 nm to 500 nm would cover all components’ absorption lines. Assume the Spectrometer detects a small lack of 470 nm radiation and no lack at 450 nm each the original 450-nm radiation gets to sensors. The sample would have a correspondingly modest concentration for component B and no concentration or below detection limit for component A. Linearity Varies with the component. In the lower end, linear behaviour is restricted by substantial noise from the data. That happens because very low metal concentrations reach instrument detection limit. At the higher end, linearity breaks down if component concentration is large enough for more complex radiation-atom interaction. Ionized charged atoms and molecule formation function to provide a nonlinear absorption-concentration curve.
The atomic absorption spectroscopy and fire convert metal-based molecules and complexes to isolated atoms. The multiple molecules which any metal can form signifies that matching a specific spectrum to the origin metal is difficult, if not impossible. The fire and atomizer are meant to violate any molecular bonds they may have. Fine-tuning Flame features fuel/air ratio, fire width, choice of fuel, etc. and atomizer instrumentation can be a challenge in itself. Light enters the monochromator after passing through the sample. The monochromator divides light waves based on wavelength. The objective of this separation is to sort out which wavelengths are present and to what extent. Received wavelength intensity is measured against the initial intensity. The wavelengths are compared to ascertain how much of each appropriate wavelength was consumed by the sample. The monochromator relies on exact geometry to work properly. Strong vibrations or sudden temperature swings can make a monochromator to break.